Domain III: Developing Reading Comprehension and
Promoting Independent Reading

 
There are approximately 65-70 multiple choice questions on the exam. These include both content questions, in which knowledge about reading and reading instruction is directly assessed, and contextualized question that assess the candidate’s ability to apply specific knowledge, to analyze specific problems, or to conduct specific tasks related to reading instruction. Approximately 30% of the questions assess competencies in Domain III. The following multiple choice questions reflect all of the competencies in Domain III.

Domain III: Developing Reading Comprehension and
Promoting Independent Reading

1. A student who moves his/her lips while reading may have a problem with:

a. fluency

b. phonemic awareness

c. text structure

d. syntax

2. "Question the Author" is a valuable

a. interviewing technique

b. discussion tool for helping students understand what they’re reading

c. book

d. approach to teaching the forms of argument

3. A paraphrase is

a. a concise recounting of the main point

b. a translation of text into the students’ own words

c. a translation of text into students’ home language

d. an evaluation of text through students’ own cultures

4. A student who recognizes about 95% of the words and understands 75% is

a. has almost no chance of understanding what s/he is reading

b. is reading at the frustration level of comprehension

c. is reading at the instructional level of comprehension

d. is reading at the independent level of comprehension

5. The most powerful strategy for learning the vocabulary of written comprehension is

a. direct teaching of word patterns

b. direct teaching of spelling patterns

c. directed reading of comprehensible text

d. reading

6. Understanding spelling patterns has been shown to have a high correlation with

a. the ability to write clear, concise text

b. the ability to read unfamiliar text independently

c. the ability to speak clearly

d. the ability to understand the structure of the English language

7. Previewing text gives students

a. an alternative to reading it

b. an additional strategy for understanding very difficult text

c. additional notes

d. an overview of what to expect as they read

8. Chronology is the dominant organizing structure in

a. functional text

b. informational text

c. textbooks

d. narrative text

9. Paraphrasing is least useful in response to

a. functional text

b. informational text

c. textbooks

d. narrative text

10. The term "story grammar" refers to

a. the syntactic structure most commonly used in stories

b. the syntactic structures most commonly used in textbooks

c. the structure of narrative

d. the structure of exposition

11. The important elements of narrative text are

a. setting, characters, plot, problem/goal, resolution, and theme

b. introduction, body, and conclusion

c. lead, thesis, evidence, transitions, and sense of completion

d. data, interpretation, logic, and tone

12. A jigsaw is a powerful strategy for helping students understand

a. narrative text

b. informational text

c. functional text

d. argumentation

13. The four steps of Reciprocal Teaching are

a. survey, question, read, review

b. preview, paraphrase, ponder, perform

c. question, clarification, predict, summarize

d. see it, say it, cover it, whisper it

14. The structure of expository writing is most like that of

a. definition

b. narration

c. comparison

d. chronology

15. "Schema" refers to a student’s general knowledge about

a. written language

b. the subject of the reading

c. the function of reading

d. all of the above

16. Venn diagrams are particularly useful for understanding

a. causation

b. narration

c. comparison

d. definition

17. "K-W-L" refers to

a. what we knew, what we wanted to know, and what we learned

b. what we knew, where we went, and how we listened

c. what we knew, what we wrote, and what we liked

d. what we knew, what we witnessed, and what we listed

18. In helping students comprehend difficult text, teachers should consider three phases of cognitive processing as they plan their lessons:

a. Initial, informational, and informed

b. Preactive, interactive, and reflective

c. Inductive, deductive, and logical

d. Interested, informed, and illustrative

19. An anticipation guide is helpful in building students’ background knowledge and predictions by

a. providing an outline of upcoming reading

b. providing notes for upcoming reading

c. providing multi-media presentations of the information contained in upcoming reading

d. providing a series of agree/disagree statements taken from upcoming reading

20. Graphic Organizers are useful in teaching students

a. effective reading strategies

b. how to organize information

c. how to prepare for reading

d. effective study strategies

When would it probably be most useful to (Questions 21-25):
21. strengthen inadequate or inaccurate background knowledge?

a. before the students read the text

b. as the students read the text

c. after the students have read the text

d. during lesson preparation and planning

22. determine the key concepts and vocabulary?

a. during lesson preparation and planning

b. before the students read the text

c. as the students read the text

d. after the students have read the text

23. relate the new information from the reading to information they already know?

a. during lesson preparation and planning

b. before the students read the text

c. as the students read the text

d. after the students have read the text

24. assist students in identifying the structure of the text to be read?

a. during lesson preparation and planning

b. before the students read the text

c. as the students read the text

d. after the students have read the text

25. explain the purpose for the reading?

a. during lesson preparation and planning

b. before the students read the text

c. as the students read the text

d . after the students have read the text

26. When previewing reading material, a strategic reader should note

a. the title, graphics, headings, topic sentences, summaries, and questions

b. the title, graphics, length of text, and highlighted (or italicized) terms

c. the focus questions provided by the teacher and/or the textbook

d. the introduction, body, and conclusion

27. As s/he reads, a strategic reader should

a. begin at the beginning, and read carefully and slowly until the end

b. skim the text, using the focus questions provided by the teacher and/or the textbook for review

c. begin by reading the focus questions provided by the teacher and/or the textbook, and then scan for key words to develop answers

d. read flexibly, varying the rate of the reading in accordance with the importance and difficulty of the text

28. After completing academic or informational reading, the strategic reader should

a. reward the effort with food and/or a break

b. reflect upon the significance of the information and systematize what has been learned

c. write a summary, paraphrase, and/or graphic organizer in addition to completing any questions that have been provided by the teacher and/or the textbook

d. immediately continue with work on another academic subject area

29. Prediction is a powerful strategy for helping readers

a. understand their own world, as well as that of their peers

b. set a purpose for reading, as well as activate prior knowledge

c. understand the structure of the text, as well as the unfamiliar terms that may be included

d. set a pace for reading, as well as a strategy for studying

30. In Reciprocal Teaching, students ask and answer clarification questions about

a. the purpose of the reading assignment

b. the holes in their prior knowledge

c. the headings and focus questions previewed prior to reading

d. unclear terms and concepts

31. Prediction is powerful

a. prior to reading

b. during reading

c. after reading

d. all of the above

32. A summary should be

a. no more than 1/3 as long as the original text

b . no more than 2/3 as long as the original text

c . no longer than the original text

d. no shorter than the original text

33. In Reciprocal Teaching, "Study Questions" focus the readers on

a. interpreting the information in the text

b. analyzing the information in the text

c. understanding the information in the text

d. summarizing the information in the text

34. The purpose of a summary is to

a. help the reader identify synonyms for the new terms in the text

b. help the reader identify the "big idea" from the text

c. help the reader understand the syntax of the text

d. help the reader understand the text structure of the reading

35. The most important factor affecting a student’s level of reading comprehension is

a. the phonics program s/he had during the primary grades

b. the expectation level of the teacher

c. the amount of reading the student has done

d. the student’s training in grammar

36. The "Directed Reading — Thinking Activity" (DRTA) combines

a. student’s predictions with searching for evidence to verify them

b. student’s prior knowledge with copying notes prior to reading

c. the teacher’s predictions with students’ reading for verification

d. the teacher’s prior knowledge with student notes on the text

37. The DRTA (Directed Reading-Thinking Activity) is most valuable for helping students

a. identify and define unfamiliar terms

b. form a purpose and cognitive focus for reading

c. review for a test

d. understand the structure of the text

38. A summary can often be presented through

a. a graphic representation

b. a set of notes taken during reading

c. a set of prediction questions developed prior to reading

d. a list of unfamiliar terms found during the reading

39. In diagnosing students’ ability to produce summaries, two things must be considered

a. the students’ writing ability and vocabulary

b. the students’ knowledge of syntax and semantics

c. the students’ summary writing schema and the difficulty of the material

d. the students’ prior instruction and spelling ability

40. To build students’ ability to produce summaries of academic reading,

a. begin with relatively accessible reading material and be sure that they can identify the main idea of each paragraph

b. begin with textbook material and be sure that they can explain the difference between fact and opinion

c. begin with models of summaries and be sure that they can write the original, elaborated versions

d. begin with narrative material and be sure that they can identify the character, plot, and setting

41. The five rules for writing a summary are:

a. read, review, recite, respond, and repeat in your own words

b. preview, write questions, read, answer questions in complete sentences, and put the sentences together in a paragraph

c. collapse lists, use topic sentences, get rid of unnecessary detail, collapse paragraphs, and polish the summary

d. use topic sentences, add transitions, add details, add examples and anecdotes, and edit for spelling and punctuation

42 . Summarizing is cognitively challenging because it requires readers to

a. read carefully, write clearly, and repeat creatively

b. condense information, select what is most important, and combine the selected ideas and information in a new form

c. identify the topic sentences, combine them into clear text, and remember the important details

d. identify the important details, combine them into clear sentences, and generate topic sentences for them

43. Summarizing is important because it requires readers to

a. actively clarify the meaning and significance of what they read, and to "chunk" information into webs of meaning

b. translate text into their own words, adding accessible terms and syntactic structures to difficult concepts

c. include their own opinions of information, and to justify these opinions with relevant facts and details

d. read carefully, write clearly, and repeat creatively

44. Predicting is important because it requires readers to

a. share their opinions and justify them by using relevant facts and details

b. actively look for evidence that their prediction is correct

c. draw upon background knowledge and reading comprehension to focus attention on upcoming information

d. read carefully, write clearly, and repeat creatively

45. Efficient readers make predictions by relying on

a. teacher instruction

b. syntactic and semantic clues, and organizational structure

c. notes taken during reading

d. terms and definitions, and paragraph structure

46. Efficient readers summarize

a. at intervals throughout their reading of challenging text

b. prior to reading challenging text

c. after reading challenging text

d. after taking notes on challenging text

47. When writing summaries, younger readers tend to focus on

a. details rather than main ideas

b. interesting information rather than important information

c. topic sentences rather than thesis statements

d. difficult terms rather than familiar ones

48. Like most cognitive processes, summarizing is

a. a skill that develops as readers mature

b. a skill that some students can do and others cannot

c. a skill that must be directly taught in order to be utilized

d. a skill that challenges younger readers more than older ones

49. Prediction serves as

a. an assessment of students’ comprehension of written text

b. evidence of students’ completion of a reading assignment

c. a source of purpose for reading

d. a scaffold for understanding new and unfamiliar terms

50. QAR (Question-Answer Relationships) is a

a. strategy for teaching students how to define new and unfamiliar terms

b. small group cooperative activity that allows students to become "experts" in specific areas of interest

c. taxonomy of question types that reflects the levels of abstraction required for successful answers

d. commercial laser-tag game

51. Student-generated questions

a. are widely used, once students are taught the strategy

b. build comprehension by requiring readers to tie new information to prior knowledge

c. are less effective in building comprehension than those developed by most publishers

d. build writing and editing skills

52. Student-generated questions

a. increase retention of information

b. increase retention of writing skills

c. increase retention of students

d. increase retention of speaking skills

53. In the QAR (Question-Answer Relationships) system of question analysis and generation, a "Right There" question would be:

a. What does this graph include?

b. What does this graph tell us?

c. What might this graph indicate?

d. Why did the author include this graph?

54. In the QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) system of question analysis and generation, a "Putting It Together" question would be:

a. Why has Joey run away?

b. What actions has Joey taken so far?

c. Who is Joey?

d. Where will Joey go now?

55. In the QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) system of question analysis and generation, an "Author and Me" question would be:

a. Why do snails have shells?

b. How might snails survive when the day is hot and dry?

c. What do snails eat?

d. Where do snails live?

56. One value of teaching students about the QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) system of question analysis and generation is:

a. It would build students’ fluency.

b . It would help them weave their experience and their reading together.

c. It would build students’ writing abilities.

d. It would help them remember basic facts and data.

57. In scaffolding students’ comprehension skills with instructional level material, a teacher should

a. assign reading and explain the content afterwards

b. explain the content and then assign reading

c. assign reading and help students clarify the reasons for any confusion, teaching them reading strategies as they read

d. assign reading and clarify the content of confusing passages, teaching them content as they read

58. Effective readers’ "Metacomprehension" in reading includes:

a. Highlighting the text to identify important information and using the dictionary to define unfamiliar terms.

b. Reading slowly and carefully in order to remember the important information and unfamiliar terms

c. Setting goals, planning their approach, monitoring their reading and checking their understanding, and reflecting on what they have read.

d. Being aware of their surroundings, tools, teachers’ requirements, and time.

59. One of the best ways to help readers monitor their own comprehension is to have them

a. read aloud

b. answer questions at the end of the section

c. read difficult material at least twice

d. paraphrase regularly as they read

60. If a student recognizes 90% of the words they read, and comprehends approximately 50%, s/he is reading at the

a. instruction level

b. frustration level

c. middle school level

d. high school level

61. Assessing reading solely through regularly assigned writing samples is

a. the most accurate assessment of students’ reading comprehension

b. inaccurate, since some students read far better than they write

c. inaccurate, since the writing interrupts students’ reading

d. accurate, since students cannot write what they cannot understand

63. Assessing reading solely through standardized testing is

a. the most accurate assessment of students’ reading comprehension

b. inaccurate, since some students read far better than they test

c. inaccurate, since the tests are biased

d. accurate, since students cannot answer the questions correctly unless they understand

64. The cloze test assesses students’ ability to

a. recall and apply unfamiliar terms and phrases

b. use semantic, syntactic, and background knowledge to make predictions

c. spell correctly

d. read aloud with correct pacing, intonation, and emphasis

65. The cloze test allows the teacher to assess whether the text

a. presents accurate information for the students

b. presents information at an instructional reading level

c. presents excessive numbers of proper nouns

d. presents information that will interest and motivate further reading

66. A cloze test is a

a. standardized test which follows 250 word passages with questions requiring a range of comprehension levels

b. standardized test which asks students to write the conclusion to a range of 250 word passages

c. test format which requires students to insert words that have been omitted from a 250 word passage

d. test format which requires students to closely paraphrase a 250 word essay

67. A formative assessment of students’ comprehension might include the following question:

a. Who has heard of King Arthur? What can you tell us?

b. Why is King Arthur so famous?

c. When did King Arthur live?

c. Based on your reading thus far, what do you predict will happen to Arthur and Guenevere next?

68. A reading interest inventory is useful for teachers who wish to

a. assess their students’ reading comprehension level

b. assess their students’ reading motivation

c. increase their students’ quality of reading

d. increase their students’ quantity of reading

69. The K-W-L (What I Know, What I Want to Know, and What I Learned) strategy allows the teacher to assess

a. the students’ motivation level

b. the students’ comprehension level

c. the students’ ability to weave background knowledge and new information together

d. the students’ ability to recall specific information

70. Teachers can use Retellings as a means of assessing

a. students’ reading motivation

b. students’ retention and comprehension

c. students’ vocabulary

d. students’ reading fluency

71. Asking students to review the possible reasons for the miscues they made during an oral reading (Retrospective Miscue Analysis) can increase students’

a. confidence

b. knowledge of reading strategies

c. scores

d. knowledge of reading content

72. Which type of test would be most useful for the classroom teacher who wants to assess students’ levels of reading comprehension?

a. A reading inventory

b. An Inventory of students’ language skills

c. A standardized sequence of oral reading passages

d. A standardized reading test (such as the CTBS, CAT-5, SAT-9, etc.)

73. Schoolwide efforts such as Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) and Silent Sustained Reading (SSR) have shown to

a. decrease both instructional time and student achievement

b. have minimal effect on instructional time and student achievement

c. have minimal effect on student fluency and comprehension

d. increase both student fluency and comprehension

74. A question that would require comprehension at the interpretive level would be

a. Why does the author have Stanley say "…only if you dare!" on page 73?

b. What does Stanley say on page 73?

c. What is the best thing that Stanley does on page 73?

d. How old is Stanley?

75. A scaffolded reading experience is one in which

a. the student reads slowly, searching for the answers to pre-determined questions

b. the student reads quickly, reinforcing information presented earlier through classroom lecture, activity, demonstration, etc.

c. the student is lead through a set of prereading, during reading, and postreading experiences designed to assist understanding and enjoyment

d. the student is lead through the reading step by step, working with teacher and peers to review each section and working independently to remember relevant facts, details, anecdotes, etc.

76. Scaffolds are designed to assist students’ reading

a. success, comprehension, learning, and enjoyment

b. speed, recall, interpretation, and evaluation

c. motivation, fluency, accountability, and reflection

d. level, commitment, insight, and efficiency

77. Silent reading, paired reading, guided reading, and oral reading are

a. Not recommended for students after grade 3

b. Recommended for all content areas

c. Not recommended for students after grade 9

d. Recommended for narrative reading only

78. The systematic, explicit learning of roots + affixes, along with word patterns

a. Builds readers’ motivation

b. Builds readers’ fluency

c. Builds readers’ pronunciation

d. Builds readers’ recall

79. The systematic, explicit learning of reading strategies

a. Builds readers’ interest

b. Builds readers’ imagination

c. Builds readers’ efficiency

d. Builds readers’ endurance

80. Word identification strategies, vocabulary instruction, and information about the history of the English language build students’

a. fluency

b. accuracy in pronunciation

c. interest

d. syntax

81. Instruction in phonic analysis for word identification should include

a. Syllabication rules

b. letter-sound correspondences, decoding by analogy, and blending sounds

c. spelling rules

d. word-meaning correspondences, decoding by recognition, and separating sounds into distinct sequences

82. Instruction in structural analysis for word identification should include

a. spelling rules

b. sentence structures

c. roots and affixes

d. blends and digraphs

83. Literature Circles are most powerful in scaffolding success with

a. Textual reading

b. Functional reading

c. Recreational reading

d. Independent reading

84. Literature Circles and Reciprocal Teaching both build comprehension through

a. direct instruction of skills

b. direct instruction of strategies

c. student leadership

d. student experience

85. In Literature Circles, language is

a. analyzed and celebrated

b. recalled and recorded

c. applied and evaluated

d. taught and tested

86. In Literature Circles, students

a. take different roles that reflect the thinking processes of good readers

b. take different roles that reflect the literary devices used by good writers

c. take on the persona of excellent writers

d. take on the responsibilities of experienced readers

87 . Literature Circles are

a. Whole class discussions of readings, reactions, responses, and predictions

b. teacher presentations of story grammar, the heroic cycle, and literary devices

c. small group discussions of readings, reactions, responses, and predictions

d. student presentations of story grammar, the heroic cycle, and literary devices

88. Comprehension of scientific text requires:

b. a knowledge of story grammar and writing devices such as dialogue, description, and pacing

c. a knowledge of expository structure, textbook aids such different sizes and types of print, focus questions, graphics, and a thorough knowledge of roots and affixes

d. a knowledge of expository structure and textbook aids such as different sizes of print, different types of font, focus questions, graphics, and a thorough knowledge of the scientific method

e. a knowledge of causal relationships and writing devices such as focus articles, maps, timelines, graphics, and a thorough knowledge of sentence types

89. Comprehension of social science text requires:

a. a knowledge of story grammar and writing devices such as dialogue, description, and pacing

b. a knowledge of expository structure, textbook aids such as different sizes and types of print, focus questions, graphics, and a thorough knowledge of roots and affixes

c. a knowledge of expository structure and textbook aids such as different sizes of and types of print, focus questions, and graphics

d. an understanding of causation and French, German, Anglo-Saxon, American Indian, and Spanish terms

90. A thorough knowledge of roots and affixes is particularly helpful in understanding the language of

a. history

b. science

c. literature

d. mathematics

91. Systematic, explicit instruction in sentence structure

a. builds students’ confidence

b. builds students’ ability to write sophisticated sentences in their essays

c. builds students’ ability to understand sophisticated sentences in their reading

d. builds students’ interest and motivation

92. Through independent reading, students build

a. independent work habits and efficient study skills

b. relationships with others

c. vocabulary, fluency, and background knowledge in syntax, semantics, and content

d. confidence and interest in academic reading

93. Children who do not develop the ability to read words accurately and quickly are at risk of encountering difficulty in comprehension because

a. most of their attention will be directed toward identifying individual words rather than word and/or sentence meanings

b. they may not develop phonemic awareness

c. their attention will stray to peripheral concerns

d. their oral reading will be a source of embarrassment and difficulty

94. Timing students’ reading of lists of grade-level words can provide insight into

a. their attitude about reading

b. their ability to speak clearly and effectively under pressure

c. their ability to move beyond the surface of text to focus on underlying meaning

d. their prior school experiences in reading

95. Research that asked students to read text designed to challenge comprehension found that

a. good readers of all ages monitored their reading and regularly attempted to clarify meaning

b. poor readers of all ages monitored their reading and regularly attempted to clarify meaning

c. good readers above grade 7 monitored their reading and regularly attempted to clarify meaning

d. poor readers above grade 11 monitored their reading and regularly attempted to clarify meaning

96. Readers with a high amount of prior knowledge that is consistent with the content in the text

a. do not need to read the text

b. do not see the value of the text

c. exhibit high levels of recall and comprehension after reading the text

d. exhibit low levels of recall and comprehension after reading the text

97. A Venn diagram is particularly useful in helping readers understand

a. story grammar

b. exposition

c. causal relationships

d. comparisons

98. Story grammar is often shown as

a. a cluster

b. an open triangle

c . a pair of circles

d. a list

99. Outlining makes explicit the structure of

a. narrative text

b. informational text

c. functional text

d. recreational text

100. Sequencing can be shown through

a. a series of boxes connected by arrows

b. concentric circles

c. two columns

d. a cluster

101. On average, adults read

a. 10% of their reading time for pleasure; 90% for information

b. 30% of their reading time for pleasure; 70% for information

c. 60% of their reading time for pleasure; 40% for information

d. 10% of their reading time for pleasure; 90% for information

102. Reading is the process of

a. decoding the words on the page

b. scanning quickly, focusing only on important details and anecdotes, and guessing at the meanings of unfamiliar terms

c. constructing meaning by weaving prior knowledge, information suggested by the text, and the context of the reading situation

d. subvocalizing carefully to ensure accurate pronunciation, effective diction, and reasonable pacing

103. The following would most likely be found in narrative text:

a. The only fish in the river were fresh-water fish.

b. The children discovered a beautiful view of the river.

c. The river water temperature measured colder than normal.

d. The view of the river showed were the flooding occurred.

104. Listening to family members tell or read stories helps young children develop their sense of:

a. story structure

b. plot development

c. characterization

d. expository elements

105. Content-area textbooks are more difficult for children to read and understand than stories because:

a. children spend so much time reading literature for pleasure

b. children can only understand story structures

c. content-area texts have specific structures and are read differently than other books

d. students know but cannot apply the procedures for reading content-area texts.

 

Focused Educational Tasks and Instructional Problems

 
Domain III


Content Area 7: Reading Comprehension
(See RICA Content Specifications for Description)

7.1 Describe an informal comprehension assessment and explain the information it would provide.

Possible Responses:
Informal Reading Inventory
Oral Reading Analysis
Cloze
Retelling
Literal, Inferential, Applied Questions

7.2 Kim Nguyen is able to read her second grade social studies text; however, she is unable to explain what she has read. Name one skill she probably has and describe an instructional strategy that could increase her comprehension.

Possible Responses:
Reading fluency
Word recognition
Phonics Predicting and Confirming
Sight Vocabulary
Strategies
Graphic Organizers
Reciprocal Reading
Inferential Comprehension
Linking Prior Knowledge
Expository Text Structure
Vocabulary

1. Name two factors that could influence reading comprehension. Select one and describe why it could have an affect.

Possible Responses:
Accuracy and Fluency
Reading Level of Text
Word Recognition Skills
Prior Knowledge and Experiences
Vocabulary
English Language Development

7.2 A second grader reads at 30 words per minute. What is one instructional strategy you could use to increase the child’s reading rate?

Possible Responses:
Sight Words
Repeated Readings
Leveled Books
Check Phoneme Awareness
Alphabetic Understanding
Phonics Understanding

7.2 A child takes a cloze test and scores 30% correct. What additional information do you need before deciding upon an instructional strategy.

Possible Responses:
Readability of Material Read
Language Skills
Reading Level
Appropriateness of Content
Retelling

2. Your goal as a third grade teacher is to facilitate reading comprehension. What is one strategy you could use to prepare children to comprehend Mr. Popper’s Penguins.

Possible Responses:
Prior Knowledge and Experiences
Vocabulary Development
Discussion
Language Development
Setting Purposes
Preview the text
Make Predictions
Connect to themes or special interests

7.3 As a child begins to read Mr. Popper’s Penguins, what is one strategy you could use to ensure continued comprehension throughout the reading.

Possible Responses:
Independent, partner, shared or guided reading
Predictions
Application of skills and strategies
Reciprocal Reading
Reading logs or journals
Graphic organizers
Questioning Strategies (“Questioning the Author, etc.)

7.4 A teacher is going to model and explicitly teach a self-monitoring strategy. Describe a self-monitoring strategy and explain how it would help students derive meaning from text?

Possible Responses:
Identify main ideas, details, sequence, cause-effect relationships, patterns
Inferential information, relationships, causes
Drawing conclusions or generalizations
Predicting outcomes
Self-questioning
Summary writing

7.5 Describe and explain two criteria a teacher could use to select reading materials that would increase reading comprehension.

Possible Responses:
Leveled Books
Decodable Text
Independent, Instructional Levels
Award Winners
District grade-level guidelines
“Too easy, just right, too hard” guidelines
Multicultural selections
Thematic units

7.5 Your students are engaged in cooperative group discussion about group-selected literature. What evidence would you expect from them to show they are practicing comprehension strategies in their group.

Possible Responses:
Storymapping
Double entry journals
Vocabulary development
Summaries
Questioning Techniques
Reciprocal Reading Strategies
Graphic Organizers or Visuals
Responses to comprehension questions

7.5 What would you look for in a child’s learning log that would indicate the child is reading beyond the literal level?

Possible Responses:
Double entry Journals
Inferential responses
Predicting Outcomes
Drawing conclusions or generalizations
Inferring main ideas and details
Comparisons, cause-effect relationships
Venn Diagrams
Linkages to prior knowledge
K-W-L

7.5 In your classroom, what opportunities could you provide to actively engage students in independent practice of comprehension strategies?

Possible Responses:
Double entry Journals
Inferential responses
Predicting Outcomes
Drawing conclusions or generalizations
Inferring main ideas and details
Comparisons, cause-effect relationships
Venn Diagrams
Linkages to prior knowledge, personal connections
K-W-L

 
CONTENT AREA 8: LITERACY RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS
(See RICA Content Specifications for Description)

8.1 In a student’s literature response log, you note that they do not make any personal connections to the literature. Describe one example of an instructional strategy you would recommend to address this issue.

Possible Responses:
Retelling
Buddy Reading
Question Guides
Guided/Shared Reading
Teacher/Student Modeling
Reciprocal Reading
Reading Workshop
“Questioning the Author”

1. In Sara’s literature response log, you note spelling and grammar errors, reflective thinking, elaborated responses to the reading, and vocabulary definitions. To which of the above would you respond to reinforce the student’s understanding and appreciation of the literature and why.

Possible Responses:
Reflective thinking or elaborated responses to the reading
Focus of the question is on understanding and appreciating literature

8.2 You have just received a grant for $1000 to purchase literature for your classroom. What criteria would you use to make your selection and why?

Possible Responses:
Leveled Books
Decodable Text
Independent, Instructional Levels
Award Winners
District grade-level guidelines
“Too easy, just right, too hard” guidelines
Multicultural selections
Thematic units or core literature selections
Grade level recommendations
California Reading List
Librarian/colleague recommendations

8.3 You are a fifth grade teacher and your students are reading the novel Island of the Blue Dolphins. What strategy would you use to facilitate student understanding of the story elements?

Possible Responses:
Story Structure, Story Grammar
Graphic Organizer
Story Mapping, Narrative Structure

2. In this fifth grade class reading Island of the Blue Dolphins , you have a group of four RSP students reading at the second-grade level. What strategies will you use to help them access this text?

Possible Responses:
Small Group Instruction
Pacing
Anticipation Guides
Vocabulary Development
Support from RSP teacher (preteaching)
Oral discussions
Buddy Reading
Peer Tutoring
Adjusted Assignments
Choral or Echo Reading
Preview/Review
Story Structure, Story Grammar
Graphic Organizer
Story Mapping, Narrative Structure

8.3 Select a text and discuss a specific strategy you might teach to help students analyze how that literary work reflects the traditions and perspectives of a particular people.

Possible Responses:
Small Group Instruction
Anticipation Guides
Realia/Visuals
Drama, Music, Art connections
Shared Family Traditions
Venn Diagrams
Compare/Contrast
Guest Speakers

3. In your multicultural classroom which includes many English Language Learners how will you select literature that matches the instructional needs as well as interests of your students?

Possible Responses:
Leveled Books in Multiple Languages
Decodable Text in Multiple Languages
Award Winners
District grade-level guidelines
“Too easy, just right, too hard” guidelines
Multicultural selections
Thematic units or core literature selections
Grade level recommendations
California Reading List
Librarian/colleague recommendations

8.3 Respond to the following statement. Explain why you disagree or agree with it. If you disagree, describe how you would change the statement so you could agree. Encouraging children to engage in active responses to literature is really not that important. Just let the kids read and forget about the "so-called" responses.  

Possible Responses:
Literary Genres
Analyzing how texts reflect traditions and perspectives
Interaction with text
Linking prior knowledge
Writing as a reflection of understanding in reading
Discussing and valuing multiple meanings of texts
Determining mood and theme


CONTENT AREA 9: CONTENT-AREA LITERACY
(See RICA Content Specifications for Description)

9.1 Explain at least two ways children’s books present math concepts and describe your plan for incorporating literature into math instruction for the grade level of your choice.

Possible Responses:
Literature selections that focus on patterns, counting, shapes, sizes
Lack of Running Content
Understanding technical vocabulary
Following specific directions
Reading symbols, formulas, equations, graphs,
Engaging in slow, detailed reading
Understanding both written and visual symbols

9.1 In what ways do learning logs demonstrate student leaning of content area concepts and how can you use that information to assess and provide effective instruction?

Possible Responses:
Text Responses and developing understandings
Visual and Graphic Representations of Complex Thinking
Linkages to writing
Interactive thinking
Metacognition
Reflections on readings
Literal, Inferential, Applied Understandings
Vocabulary Development

9.2 Identify an expository text structure and explain one strategy you would use to explicitly teach that structure.

Possible Responses:
Compare/Contrast
Sequence
Description
Explanation
Cause/Effect
Problem Solution

9.2 Identify a specific purpose for content area reading and explain one strategy you would model and teach your students to help them meet that purpose.

Possible Responses:


Preview/Review
Skimming
Scanning
In-Depth Reading
Vocabulary Development
Critical Reading
Summaries

Active Reading
Writing
Reciprocal Reading
Guided Reading
Varied Purposes
Concept Mapping

9.2 Give an example of when you would have your students skim a text. For what purpose would you have your students skim a text? Explain how you would model and teach this strategy.

Possible Responses:
Preview/Review
Main Idea
Concept Mapping
Key vocabulary
Specific comprehension questions
Literal responses
General Information
Expository Text Structures

9.2 For what purpose would you have your students scan a text? Explain how you would model and teach this strategy.

Possible Responses:
Preview/Review
Main Idea
Locate Specific Information
Key vocabulary
Specific comprehension questions
Literal responses
Expository Text Structures

9.3 You are introducing your sixth-grade students to a new chapter in the math text. Select a study-skills strategy you would model to help students make sense of the content.

Possible Responses:
Preview/Review
Concept Mapping
Key vocabulary
Textbook Structures and Patterns of Instructions
Note-Taking
General Information

9.3 A student is reading a science chapter to which he has not been previously exposed. List an explicit skill for locating and retrieving information from this selection that you would teach this student.

Possible Responses:
Preview
Anticipation Guide
Brainstorming
Clustering
Note-taking
Scanning
Quickwrite

9.3 As a student prepares for test taking on this material, identify a test-taking preparation skill you would model and teach the student.

Possible Responses:
SQR3, etc.
Review work samples
Prepare or Review graphic organizer
Review Notes
Generate Questions
Reciprocal Reading
Reviewing and retaining information


CONTENT AREA 10: STUDENT INDEPENDENT READING
(See RICA Content Specifications for detailed description.)

10.1 Fourth-grader Tom, an on-grade level reader, is a reluctant independent reader, never choosing to read for pleasure. Describe how you could determine his reading interests and/or preferences so as to encourage his independent reading.

Possible Responses:
Interviews
Pee/Teacher Recommendations
Buddy Reading
Literature Circles and small group instruction
Parent recommendations
Links to topics of interest
Motivational strategies
Incentives/Rewards

10.1 In the middle of the year Josie enrolls in your class. Describe a technique for determining her independent reading level.

Possible Responses:
Interviews
Informal Reading Inventory
Oral Reading Selections
Interview
Retelling
Miscue Analysis
Graded word lists and passages

10.1 You are a third grade teacher. How will you create an environment that will encourage independent reading in your classroom? Explain how you will provide for such reading in your daily schedule.

Possible Responses:
Book Talks
Collaborative Book Reports
Readers Theatre
Buddy Reading
Reading Aloud to other students
Reading Logs
Grand Conversations
Classroom Library, book corners, literacy centers, bulletin boards

10.1 Describe two effect ways to allow students to share books they have read. 10.1 List a variety of approaches you would use to guide students in selecting independent reading materials.

Possible Responses:
Book Talks
Collaborative Book Reports
Readers Theatre
Buddy Reading
Reading Aloud to other students
Reading Logs
Grand Conversations
Author’s Chair

10.2 Imagine that a parent of one of your students has asked for suggested to increase the student’s motivation to read. Suggest ways you and the parent can work with the student to improve motivation both at home and in school.

Possible Responses:
Book Talks
Collaborative Book Reports
Shared/Guided Reading
Buddy/Partner/Parent Reading
Reading Aloud to other students
Family Reading
District guidelines, teacher/peer recommended books, self-selected goals
Incentives and Motivational (contests, sponsors, book clubs, etc.) suggestions
Choices, opportunities, expectations, accountability

10.2 Write a paragraph promoting reading at home to be included in your class newsletter . Be sure to include rationale and specific strategies parents can use to promote literature at home.

Possible Responses:
Book Clubs
Public Library Cards
Visits to the library
Family reading together
Having variety of reading materials in the home

 

Domain III: Case Study Based on Student Profile

In this section of the RICA exam, candidates receive substantial background information about a student and samples of materials illustrating the student’s reading performance. Candidates are asked to assess the student’s reading performance, describe appropriate instructional strategies for the student, and explain why these strategies would be effective or task for each of the four domains. The exam contains one case study, which includes content related to all four domains of the RICA Content Specifications and requires a written response of approximately 300 words.

 
Case Study #1

 
DREW
At the end of the first quarter, Drew, one of the 96 students in the 7th grade Core, has yet to attain a passing grade on a test. The teacher, Mr. Moran, has encouraged Drew to keep up with reading the book, and has even distributed special "study questions" prior to each exam, but Drew says that the textbook is "boring and heavy," making it difficult to take home and/or read. Drew’s book generally stays in the classroom, and it is rarely read.
When Mr. Moran contacts Drew’s mother by telephone, he learns that Drew has always had trouble with reading, and that art, skating, and skiing claim most of Drew’s time.
A quick check of Drew’s cumulative file reinforces the mother’s claim: at the end of 6th grade, Drew scored in the 35th percentile in Vocabulary, the 38th percentile in Comprehension, and the 36th percentile in General Reading on the SAT-9. The scores on earlier CTBS tests seem to show a similar level of reading skill. No other testing is in evidence.
Based on this information, write a possible action plan for Mr. Moran, noting the kinds of information about Drew’s reading that would be useful, along with possible methods for obtaining it. In case Mr. Moran isn’t able to analyze Drew’s reading as well as he would like, be sure to include some possible instructional strategies that would serve to help Drew understand the information presented in the textbook.

Possible Response
Mr. Moran might begin by administering a reading placement test – the Nelson, Gates- MacGinitie, or a similar test - as well as establishing the readibility level of the textbook, either by looking at the materials provided by the textbook publisher or by doing a readibility test. The disparities between Drew’s reading level and that of the textbook would probably reinforce the fact that Drew is having difficulty reading the text, that Drew is suffering from a more severe problem than “motivation.” If Drew were willing to work on his reading and trusted Mr Moran enough, Mr. Moran might follow this by working with Drew to determine the specific reading challenges in the 7th grade textbook. He might begin by asking him to read a brief section of the textbook and to answer some comprehension and vocabulary questions. Drew should be told what the questions show about his reading, and further conversation should focus on determining how he solves problems of identifying words and understanding meaning. Knowledge of Drew’s print skill, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension can guide Mr. Moran in selecting specific scaffolds for Drew to use with reading. With 96 students, though, Mr. Moran will need some instructional strategies to use right away, strategies that may benefit the Drews of the group and simultaneously provide additional support for those who are more proficient readers Instructional strategies like textbook “walks”, explanations of the structure of text, previews of new terminology and concepts, DRTA, Guided Reading, and carefully designed notemaking opportunities would serve to both focus Drew on the textbook and provide him
with scaffolding for understanding. These strategies, further, provide helpful information for most students and, therefore, should be incorporated into whole-class instruction. Similarly, small group strategies like Reciprocal Teaching and Question the Author should help Drew and his peers read and re-read, using the scaffolding of focused, small-group discussions to understand the text. When Drew reads alone, he should be taught and encouraged to use post-its, personal vocabulary lists, etc. to self-monitor and should be provided with well-written alternative texts whenever possible. One strategy to avoid is teaching Drew social studies but not having Drew do any reading, a common solution that simply makes the problem even more profound over time.
 

Case Study #2

EMILY  
Emily, a third grade student who has experienced reading difficulty, presents some interesting and somewhat atypical responses to the various components of the Reading Inventory that she was given. Review her scores carefully, noting the patterns of her strengths and weaknesses, and speculate about the types of reading instruction that would best serve Emily at this point in her learning. (See IRI Summary on page 30)
Emily’s silent reading comprehension is better than her oral comprehension, not an unusual pattern among more proficient readers. Other evidence, though, shows that she is still struggling with print skills, even though she does well enough on the listening comprehension to show that she has fairly well developed background and vocabulary knowledge. Noting the difference between her flash and untimed scores on both the first- and second-grade lists, it would seem that Emily has knowledge about word identification but has not done enough easy reading to consolidate this knowledge and still has a fairly limited sight vocabulary. This possibility is further supported by the fact that Emily reads orally with a high degree of accuracy, but seems to lack much sense of the meaning of what she has read —perhaps the print is the focal point. Emily obviously has quite a bit of knowledge; this knowledge needs expansion and explicit instruction, of course, but Emily probably is also in need of lots of practice with easily accessible materials.

Emily’s silent reading comprehension is better than her oral comprehension, not an unusual pattern among more proficient readers. Other evidence, though, shows that she is still struggling with print skills, even though she does well enough on the listening comprehension to show that she has fairly well developed background and vocabulary knowledge. Noting the difference between her flash and untimed scores on both the first- and second-grade lists, it
would seem that Emily has knowledge about word identification but has not done enough easy reading to consolidate this knowledge and still has a fairly limited sight vocabulary. This possibility is further supported by the fact that Emily reads orally with a high degree of accuracy, but seems to lack much sense of the meaning of what she has read –perhaps the print is the focal point. Emily obviously has quite a bit of knowledge; this knowledge needs
expansion and explicit instruction, of course, but Emily probably is also in need of lots of practice with easily accessible materials.